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The range of styles available to the Victorian architect helped underline the separateness and individuality of the larger Victorian house. From the 1830s, Gothic emerged as the greatest challenge to the dominance of Classical styles. Through the influence of Pugin whose ‘True Principles of Gothic Architecture’ was published in 1841, a more serious and analytical approach to the use of medieval Gothic architecture emerged. Then in 1851-3, the art critic, John Ruskin, published ‘The Stones of Venice’. This became a key text for the High Victorian Gothic of the middle decades of the century and through Ruskin’s influence elements of the Italian Gothic including pointed arched window surrounds, elaborate polychrome brickwork and carved stone decoration, was brought into the leafy suburbs of Victorian Britain. Italian architecture of the sixteenth century was another style which was widely used for large suburban houses in the middle of the century. It had its roots in Regency architecture when Nash had experimented with a semi rustic Italianate villa style and was further developed and popularised in the 1830s by Sir Charles Barry who drew heavily on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance. Osborne House, on the Isle of Wight, designed by Cubitt, for Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and completed in 1851 was the grandest example and provided the inspiration for many large villas built in the 1850s and 1860s. Typical features included a square, ‘belvedere’ tower, deep projecting eaves, roof balustrades and round arched windows. Other styles found included the Northern European – typified by the use of the curved or Dutch gable – the French Baroque – which contributed the mansard roof - and Elizabethan and Jacobean which contributed features borrowed from the typical ‘Jacobethan’ large house, including towering chimneys, mullioned windows and four pointed arched front door ways.
|For the Pallladian façade this system of proportions was combined with the architectural elements of the Roman temple consisting of a rusticated basement, columns or pilasters, entablature (including the cornice and pediment) and attic. Five types of columns with the superstructure they supported – known as the Five Orders – were used to determine the adornment of the façade (see drawing below). The Five Orders were the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite and were easily distinguished by the particular carving of the capitals and their individual proportions. The Orders were applied to a building for decorative purposes and also to ‘order’ the design of the facade. The Orders were either applied to the facade or implied by dividing the facade in height according to the divisions of an individual column. Even where the main architectural components of the temple were absent their presence could be implied by the use of certain details. Thus a cornice or even a flat string course was used to suggest the location of the entablature, or a sill band or string course at first floor level could be used to indicate the line of the column base while another above the ground floor windows could be used to indicate the junction between the column pedestal and temple podium. In a three storey high house, for example, the temple composition was implied by the ground floor storey corresponding to the area of the podium while the two stories above fell within the area of the column shaft. For the largest and grandest terraced block the temple formula provided further inspiration for the front. By adding a pediment over the centre the row was given a palace-like front. Now the overall unity of the design was more important than the facades of individual houses. John Wood (1704-5) adopted the palace front for the north side of Queen Square in Bath, started in 1728, and thereafter the pediment was widely used.|
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